Pre-code reinforced concrete frame buildings are known for their high vulnerability to earthquake damage. On one side these buildings have been designed for gravitational loads only, thus the existence of a lateral load resisting system is aleatory, on the other side the technologic possibilities after the introduction of the reinforced concrete made it possible to build higher, and thus these buildings accommodate a large number of inhabitants. But most of the time only post-war reinforced concrete frame buildings are included in this category and consequently analysed. Here the focus will lay on historic pre-code reinforced concrete buildings, namely the ones from the first half of the XXth century.
on concrete reinforced with steel, not iron, in buildings of historical
importance is rare. From this point of view the project will make a substantial
advance in the state-of-the-art in the field of conservation of buildings of
the Modern Movement exposed to seismic risk. It will do more than this, as it
will also contribute to the related field of documentation of the Modern
Movement, by analysing the distribution and the threats to this building type.
It aims to bring across that multiple housing buildings can be also monuments,
not just common buildings, and develop statements towards its conservation in
earthquake prone zones. This is a multidisciplinary issue „par excellence“, as
it implies architectural, structural, geophysical and societal aspects. Bringing actors from many fields around a
planning problem has almost become routine in urban planning and approaches for
it exist in planning of new buildings, but it is rather new in building retrofit.
Some attempts exist in the
The project aims to employ methods dedicated for interventions on existing buildings. This goes across the points of view of multiple disciplines, from which the retrofit is regarded. First an analysis of their value from a historical point of view will be made, by classifying them into cultural (monument) value, architectural value and environmental value. Based on this the amount of allowed interventions can be specified. The intervention amount is determined, on the other hand, by structural parameters. The dedicated method to determine it is based on structural assessment techniques. This concerns both the concepts (performance based retrofit) and the tools (software for building assessment) used. Optimisation is very limitedly supported by the adequate software, thus this will be one of the challenges in the project. Finally participation instruments for the user are of importance and more adequate here than in a new building, since the user are known. Construction technologies on existing buildings require special technologies but of different nature from those developed specially for this type of buildings at the time when they were constructed. Optimisation techniques of the building site organization are required again, support of industrial production is limitedly possible and special materials and machinery are asked. Support from the users of the building is essential, since the intervention disturbs an existing activity.
Last but not least
the project opens potential for comparative studies. Comparisons can be made
regarding the existence of differences in the architectural language adopted
for buildings of the same typology in high and low seismicity areas, and if
these were determined by the earthquake hazard or by other factors, like the
urban development policies of the time. Changes induced by preservation
requirements on buildings in these two areas can be compared. In certain
earthquake prone regions masonry construction prevails, in others historic
reinforced concrete gives the specific look of the city or are just presences
in the periphery. Eventually existing attempts and distribution determined need
for seismic rehabilitation can be also compared. Also the time when this type
of construction reached the respective countries may vary, and thus the
relationship to codes and the earthquakes affecting. For example the
differences which the type reached in